The Tides

 

 

 

Geometry Of I Ching

 

What is I Ching?

I Ching is the old Chinese Book of Changes that comes down to us from Confucian times and was the old path of scientific discovery. Over the centuries, and for lack of any other reason, the book has evolved into a traditional book for divination, and a guide to moral, philosophical and cosmological text.

Geometrically, I Ching is the pursuit of the two linear relationships, lines meet, and/ cross. I Ching defines and categorizes the two geometric relationships into eight trigrams. The trigrams are composed of three evenly spaced bars within a square. The bars are broken so that the lines cross or meet in negative space. There are eight trigrams that define all the possible negative linear relationships. Each linear relationship, depending on the interpretation, that represents a multiple amount of physical realities. On the most fundamental geometric level the positive bar is either broken or solid. The solid is the yang (male) and the broken is the yin (female.)

I-Ching uses the two basic line relationships lines meet and/ or cross. The lines are defined in a square in a negative space. Although I-Ching uses negative space as a fundamental structure for the two linear interactions and is successful in presenting all of the fundamental relationships of lines meeting and crossing.

The negative composition of the geometric space is composed of 64 symbolic hexagrams. Each hexagram consists of a pair of trigrams. (See 1) The trigrams consist of three solid or broken lines that are composed in a square of negatively composed of horizontal and vertical lines or bars. The distinctive characteristic each hexagram consists of a pair of trigrams. There are eight possible basic trigrams, each named for a natural phenomenon. The symbolic significance of each hexagram is expressed in cryptic poetic passages and in philosophical commentary designed to disorient conciseness. I Ching is based on the definition of change within the basic structure of duality. Change occurs by concession and passage to predict the future. .

The Yin and Yang

Yin and Yang are symbols of the universal opposite and complementary forces in Chinese thought. The two opposite are from Chinese words meaning “shaded” and “sunny.” Beginning in the early 4th century bc Chinese philosophers wrote about yin and yang in terms of the environment, especially the shaded and sunny sides of a hill. By the end of that century yin became associated with everything dark, moist, receptive, earthy, and female, whereas yang was bright, dry, active, heavenly and male. Yin and yang were believed to combine in various proportions to produce all the different objects in the universe.

There is always an element of yang within yin and an element of yin within yang. Together they are symbolized by a circle divided into black and white sections, with a dot of white in the black portion and a dot of black in the white portion. This interaction indicates that the characteristics of yin cannot exist without those of yang, or the characteristics of yang without yin. Chinese philosophers stressed the importance of balance between the two to ensure social and political harmony. Rebellion, floods, and disease were said to be caused by an imbalance of yin and yang. Fortune-tellers and doctors in China and later in Japan advised governments and individuals on ways to restore harmony in relationship to yin and yang.

Within the center of some of the categories of change, is found the placed the two complementary and opposite symbols, the yin and yang. In the I Ching the yin and yang represent, in varying proportions, all things in the universe. These aspects include dark (yin)/light (yang), wet (yin)/dry (yang), and female (yin)/male (yang). He also promoted the idea that all matter moves through five phases: metal, wood, fire, earth, and water. These theories about the structure of the universe had lasting influences, if not scientific facts.

The hexagrams evolved as fortune-telling symbols. Wen Wang (flourished about 1150 bc) is traditionally thought to have added moral counsel to the original divinatory function of the hexagrams. It is probable that Confucius and his followers added further philosophical commentary pagan, Hebrew, and early Christian peoples.

Contact with the supernatural is usually sought through a psychic medium, a person supposedly endowed with supernormal receptivity. In direct divination, the medium acquires knowledge through direct contact with the unknown. The oracle, a medium or diviner who figured prominently in the beliefs of a number of ancient peoples, including those of Babylonia and Greece, typified the mediumistic method. Oracles employed various techniques in establishing contact with divinity. Some, such as the oracle at Delphi, passed into a trance and, in this condition,uttered divine messages. Others practiced oneiromancy, or divination by dreams, and necromancy, the art of conjuring up revelations from the souls of the dead. The direct method of divination is closely approximated in much of modern spiritualism.
The accomplishment of indirect or artificial contact with the supernatural depends on the interpretation by a medium of the behavior of animals and natural phenomena, which might convey messages from the supernatural. In antiquity, common artificial or inductive means of divination were the casting of lots; haruspication, the inspection of animal entrails; and ornithomancy, the study of the activity of birds. In ancient Rome, augurs or priests performed their divination in elaborate ceremonies, called auguries, by reading auspices or omens. To determine the will of the gods, they utilized such forms of divination as haruspication, ornithomancy, and the interpretation of dreams and visions. These augurs, members of a college that existed in Rome from the founding of the city until late in the 4th century ad, exercised enormous power. No Roman would embark upon a major undertaking unless the augurs decided the auspices were favorable. The forms of inductive divination best known today include astrology; crystallomancy, or crystal gazing; bibliomancy, the interpretation of secret messages from books, especially from the Bible; numerology, the study of numbers; and the reading of palms, tea leaves, and cards.

Divination in China followed a different course. In the Shang dynasty, shoulder. I witnessed the potential of I Ching’ ability to predict future events when a friend used it to predict what the 49ers would do in the 1972 season. The 49ers had never been to a supper bowl and they where considered the doormat of the NFL. My friend cast the I Ching and it told him that the 49ers would go to the Supper Bowl, and, win it. The 49ers up to that time had never been to a super bowl, so he was unconvinced. He did it again with the same results. All things pointed to a 49er Supper Bowl victory. He went to Vegas where the odds where something like 60 to 1. To all our surprise he made a nice sum of money!

Yin and Yang, opposite and complementary forces in Chinese thought, from Chinese words meaning “shaded” and “sunny.” Beginning in the early 4th century bc Chinese philosophers wrote about yin and yang in terms of the environment, especially the shaded and sunny sides of a hill. By the end of that century yin became associated with everything dark, moist, receptive, earthy, and female, whereas yang was bright, dry, active, heavenly, and male. Yin and yang were believed to combine in various proportions to produce all the different objects in the universe.

By George…